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DNA encodes all genetic information and is the blueprint from which all biological life is created. It acts as a storage device that allows the genetic material to be passed between generations. RNA functions as the reader of the blue print that is stored in the DNA. Genetic information stored in DNA is carried by the RNA, acting as a messenger in the process to the ribosomes, where it builds its proteins. This whole process is called "central dogma" of molecular biology.
In clinical molecular diagnostics, nucleic acid amplification tests such as the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) enable the early detection and identification of infectious diseases caused by retroviruses. Utilizing mRNA as its starting template, RT-PCR expeditiously transcribes, amplifies and detects the genetic material of retroviruses in vitro. Nucleic acid tests have been successfully used in the detection of well-known retroviruses including influenza viruses, enteroviruses, coronavirus, Ebola virus, and HIV.
Dye-labeled peptides and oligonucleotides are important tools in biochemical and cellular studies. Fluorescent peptides and oligonucleotides have been extensively used in all major types of fluorescence imaging including fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). These labeled biomolecules are widely used for diagnosing infectious diseases based on the molecular beacon and other technologies. FRET peptides and oligonucleotides have been also used for cell analysis via fluorescence-associated cell sorting (FACS) either in vivo or in vitro for research and diagnostic purposes.
Tide Fluor™ dyes are optimized as building blocks for developing FRET oligonucleotides and peptides. Our Tide Fluor™ dyes have stronger fluorescence and higher photostability than the classic labeling dyes such as coumarins, fluoresceins, rhodamines and cyanines. They are the best affordable fluorescent dyes for labeling peptides and oligonucleotides without sacrificing performance.
FRET is a physical phenomenon, that is being used more and more in biomedical research and drug discovery today. FRET is the radiationless transmission of energy from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. The donor molecule is the dye or chromophore that initially absorbs the energy and the acceptor is the chromophore to which the energy is subsequently transferred. This resonance interaction occurs over greater than interatomic distances, without conversion to thermal energy and without any molecular collision. The transfer of energy leads to a reduction in the donor’s fluorescence intensity and excited state lifetime, and an increase in the acceptor’s emission intensity.
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