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Most cellular ROS are generated endogenously as byproducts of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, or formed as intermediates of oxidoreductase enzymes and metal catalyzed oxidation. Since oxygen atoms contain two unpaired electrons in separate orbits of its outer electron shell, it is susceptible to radical formation. The sequential reduction of oxygen through the addition of electrons leads to the formation of a number of ROS including nitric oxide (NO).
The role of hydrogen peroxide in cellular biology is a dominant research topic as more discoveries are made about how oxidative stress modulates intracellular pathways. Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of H2O2 biology is the recent report that antibodies have the capacity to convert molecular oxygen into hydrogen peroxide to contribute to the normal recognition and destruction processes of the immune system. AAT Bioquest's OxiVision™ series products are an efficient tool for experiments requiring highly specific fluorescent response and cell permeability.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that are naturally produced as a byproduct of cellular metabolism. Under physiological conditions, ROS levels are carefully regulated, where they operate as messengers in normal cell signal transduction, cell cycling, gene expression and homeostasis.
Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide comprised of three amino acids L-cysteine, L-glutamic acid and glycine. It is involved in the development and maintenance of protein disulfide bonds , the transport of amino acids across cell membranes, and in detoxification. Since glutathione contains a thiol group, it serves as a major endogenous antioxidants in cells preventing damage by neutralizing reactive oxygen species such as free radicals and peroxides. Monitoring reduced and oxidized glutathione in biological samples is a useful tool for evaluating the redox and detoxification status of cells and tissues against oxidative and free radical mediated cell injury. While few reagents and assay kits are commercially available for quantifying glutathione, they are hindered by their lack of sensitivity and tedious protocols. Amplite™ Fluorimetric Glutathione assay offers a convenient and ultra-sensitive method for the quantification of glutathione in biological samples.
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